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African or American? Black Identity in New York City, 1784-1861

In March 2008, candidate Barack Obama made a speech in Philadelphia articulating his own views on race in the politics of the presidential campaign. In it, he stated that ‘at various stages in the campaign, some commentators have deemed me either “too black” or “not black enough”.’(1) Clearly, issues of political and racial identity forContinue reading “African or American? Black Identity in New York City, 1784-1861”